top of page


Qualitative and quantitative methods serve different purposes and use different data collection methods. One of them can be chosen for a given survey, or a mixed method, where both are used together, can be preferred.

Difference Between Quantitative Research and Qualitative Research

Quantitative research is in the simplest terms concerned with numbers; it is used to quantify ideas, behaviours, and other defined variables and uncover patterns to support or refute a hypothesis put forward about a phenomenon. It is an objective and systematic method. Numerical data collected for quantitative research is analysed through comparisons and statistical inference.


On the other hand, qualitative research is based on textual data; it deals with observable but unmeasurable phenomena. It aims to understand human behaviour, uncover the emotions, thoughts, experiences, and motivations behind an idea, behaviour, or problem. The perspective of the participants is central in this research method. Data are obtained through observation of participants or interviews/discussions. When used alone, qualitative research can provide an in-depth understanding of a problem. Additionally, it can contribute to the development of ideas and hypotheses for future quantitative research when used for exploratory purposes.


Furthermore, it can also be conducted alongside quantitative research. In this context, it serves the purpose of making sense of and deepening the understanding of numerical data.




Surveys that are representative at the national, regional or target audience level are conducted by using CAPI or CATI methods.


​CAPI, or Computer Assisted Personal Interview, are surveys conducted face-to-face using a tablet or a laptop. This method is advantageous in terms of reliability and accessibility since it is done in-person with the participant. CAPI makes it possible to conduct surveys in any region that cannot be accessed by phone.


CATI, or Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing, is a method of filling out surveys remotely through phone calls using computer software. It is preferred in cases where the target audience's phones can be accessed as it is faster and more cost-effective. 



Panel is a regular survey conducted on a specific participant pool regarding the same topic. It is used to monitor periodic differences in the subject being researched and to report them comparatively. For example, manufacturing companies can be asked about industry changes, challenges they face, and future predictions every three months. In this case, each quarter is compared to the previous one and trends in the industry are identified. Additionally, comparisons made with the same quarter of the previous year allows for the observation of long-term changes.


In-Depth Interviews

This type of interview uses semi-structured guides, prepared according to the research topic, to conduct conversations with participants. Unlike surveys, these guides do not provide predetermined answers that participants can choose from. They consist of open-ended questions that give the interviewer clues as to which topics should be addressed. There is no restriction on the length of the participant's response. When answering a question, the participant can tell a long story or express their opinions by providing examples, and they can also touch upon different topics if they wish. The main concern at this point is not to deviate from the objectives of the research and not to exclude other important topics for the study. It is the interviewer's responsibility to ensure this, and he/she proceeds with predetermined questions to ensure that the conversation proceeds within this framework. Furthermore, the interviewer asks additional questions during the conversation to clarify and expand on the participants' narrative.


During the interview, it is essential not to influence the participant's opinions in any way, avoid any guidance, and ensure that the participant feels comfortable. The important thing is to gather the sincere feelings and thoughts of the participant. In short, there are no right or wrong answers, only what the participants say. This is explained to the participants at the beginning of the interview Additionally, before starting the interview, participants are assured of confidentiality and informed that the interview can be terminated at any time and that the interview data would not be used in any analysis upon their request even after the interview took place. The interviews are conducted in an environment where the participant feels comfortable and safe, and the conversation is recorded with the participant's permission. Afterwards, the recordings are transcribed. The transcriptions are anonymized, removing not only the name of the participant from the text but also any information that could reveal their identity. These transcriptions constitute the qualitative data and are then analysed and reported.


Focus Group Meetings

These meetings are conversations held with groups of 8-10 people. Semi-structured interview guides, which are prepared according to the subject of research, are used in the meetings. Unlike surveys, there are no answer choices for the questions in these guides. The questions basically give the moderator clues as to which topics should be addressed. The difference between group meetings and in-depth interviews is that participants can also converse with each other, discuss a topic together, and respond to different opinions and questions. The meetings usually last for two hours. The important thing is to address all necessary topics without deviating from the research objectives during this time. The moderator is responsible for ensuring that the conversation progresses within this framework. Additionally, it is their responsibility to deepen and bring forward important points by asking new questions based on the participants' narratives, ensure that each participant has an equal opportunity to converse, and prevent negative discussions from occurring.


When questions are being asked, it is essential to not influence or steer the participants' opinions in any way, and to make sure they feel comfortable. The important thing is to capture the participants' sincere emotions and thoughts. In short, there are no right or wrong answers, only what the participants say. This is explained to the participants at the beginning of the meeting. Additionally, before starting the discussions, participants are assured of confidentiality and informed that  they can leave the meeting at any time, and their data can be excluded from the analysis if they wish, even after the interview. The meetings are conducted in environments where participants feel comfortable and safe, and audio recordings are made with their permission during the conversation. These recordings are then transcribed. Each participant is given a code in the transcription process, thus preserving their anonymity while tracking their opinions and thoughts. In the anonymization process, not only their names but also any information that could reveal their identities is removed from the text. These transcriptions constitute the qualitative data and are then analysed and reported.



Observation is one of the qualitative research methods. The place/target audience, which is the subject of the research, is observed without any intervention and notes are taken. This data is very valuable in capturing and understanding the natural state of the place/target audience. Observation notes provide input to other qualitative and quantitative data collection methods and help establish connections between different data and contribute to interpreting various results in the reporting process.

Yerinde Gözlem
Ofis Toplantısı

Let us find the most suitable method for you together.

Choosing the right method is crucial to obtain the best result from a study. Our experienced team can assist you with this matter and create the most suitable research design for you.

bottom of page